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Choosing the Right Fixed Coaxial Attenuator

Coaxial attenuators are resistive networks, pi or t networks, connector to RF / Microwave connectors. These attenuators are commonly used to adjust signal levels in military & commercial rf & microwave systems. When choosing the right coaxial attenuator for your application, one should keep in mind certain key parameters.

Connector type: SMA attenuators, BNC attenuators, & type N attenuators are very common. One can also buy fairly readily attenuators with TNC, 2.92mm, & 2.4mm connectors. There are a few manufacturers who offer QMA, 1.85, SMB, F, & Reverse Polarity (N, SMA, TNC) attenuators. Of course coaxial adapters can always be used with any attenuator connector, but we all prefer to avoid them unless necessary.

Connector material: Both Brass & Stainless Steel are commonplace. One must watch the associated torque values; a brass sma requires 3-5 in-lbs, a stainless steel sma requires 7-10 in-lbs, depending upon the manufacturer. Using a 10 in-lb torque wrench on a brass sma will usually twist the sma nut right off the part! SMA, BNC, Type N, & TNC attenuators are available in both materials, with brass being used for many commercial applications, & stainless lasting over increased mates/demates. Undertorquing certain attenuators, like the sma, can cause degraded performance at higher frequencies, often 15 ghz & above.

Power CW: For small signal applications to 18ghz 2 watts is the most commonly available attenuator, though there are a few 0.5watt & 1 watt attenuators also available. Above 18ghz the choices are less, often just 0.5watts at 50ghz. Likewise below 18ghz higher powers are available, with uncooled 500 watt units at 3ghz commonplace. Power CW is usually specified at room temperature, but derates as temperature increases; a 2 watt unit @ 25C may only handle 0.5watts @ 125 C

Frequency: As frequency increases, the resistive chips must be made with more precision, & hence cost more. Commonly available bands are 0-6ghz, 0-18ghz, 0-26ghx, 0-40ghz, & 0-50ghz, 0-65ghz. As the construction is simply a resistive network, the lower frequency range will always be 0. At the upper frequency limit is where one can expect the most ripple in passband response, & the widest deviation from desired attenuator.

Directionality: Small signal attenuators are bidirectional, either port can be used as the input. Most of the very high power attenuators are unidirectional, they have an input & output, & hooking the DUT backwards is normally fatal. This is because high power attenuators use cascaded attenuator chips; perhaps 2-3 db in the first chip, 3-5 in the second, 6-30 in the third, effectively spreading the heat to be dissipated along the length of the attenuator. Applying power to the output results in virtually all the power being dissipated in one chip which then overheats & fails.

DC Handling: Being resistive networks, coaxial attenuators aren’t intended to handle DC & will change the DC. Often the attenuator will dissipate too much heat in its resistive elements & fail. One can bypass the attenuator with dc blocks & bias-t’s. A few bias passing attenuators are available which incorporate the dc blocks & bias t’s.

Contact Materials: Almost all available attenuators use BeCu female contacts, & Brass male contacts. A few consumer applications will substitute brass for the female contacts for cost reduction, but these should be avoided for all but consumer applications.

Electrical Specifications: One can expect these specifications: VSWR, Attenuation value, Attenuation accuracy (tolerance), Frequency (upper), Power Handling CW, Power Handling Peak, Operating Temperature Range, Impedance, Connector Material, and Contact Material.

Source by Bob Hawkins is Making a Major Statement in the Dating Arena

Follow the new age process of meeting real single men and women on the Internet, Single The Internet’s only singles social network.

If you are a paying member of virtually any singles website already then you may have already figured out that you may not be receiving your moneys worth.

The dating site member will in most cases always simply retrieve unread e-mail, then usually log off. This is because a dating site member does not always have a variety of features to keep them involved in the community.

At located at users stay much more active in the singles community. This is due to the fact that has one of the most featured packed services to date. These features are enhanced for the end user to ensure both ease of navigation as well and to provide other useful conveniences.

The service itself is geared towards adult crowds over the age of 18. It has been called by ADULT Connections Network(TM) the “sexy singles network” due to it’s slightly racy push into the world of uncensored photo galleries and free adult chat rooms. free adult chat rooms are one of kind in that, well it is high quality and truly free. Registered members can easily instant message other users as well as invite other users from the chat rooms to member created private chat rooms. There is even more though to the free adult chat rooms. This is probably the best part of the he free adult chat rooms, they are also fully featured video chat rooms where members can easily watch video users upload to their profiles or stream live web cams.

As far as what makes a social network rather than your average singles dating website, we begin with the features. Like many dating websites users can contact members via the websites messaging system. takes contacting a member one-step further by allowing it’s members an option to either send contacts to the member’s mailbox, the members personal e-mail address directly or both.

Upload, Upload, Upload photos, music, videos and more. members now can easily contribute music, personal videos and up to 50 photos to their personal as well as public galleries. Registered members have complete access to users media with abilities to download other members media directly to their computer. With enhanced media features user are allowed the power to take control of their communities media content.

Getting your profile noticed is guaranteed to be simple, but only if you are willing to take the time to take advantage of all of your options to expose yourself. Users that create their own Blog, speak out in public and private forums and post free personal ads in the Classifieds definitely benefit most from

To best sum up a description of I can say if you are familiar with the service such as MySpace…try picturing MySpace with a mild adult theme.

Source by John Mavis Sr.

StarCraft 2 Strategies – Zerg Rush Build Order – Nydus Bust

Looking for a good Zerg rush build order for Starcraft 2? Well look no longer my fellow gamers you've found one. This Zerg rush build order is not one for newbs nor is it necessarily one for advanced players. Its more of an intermediate build order that can catch an unsuspecting player off guard and land you a decisive win. So lets take a look at the technical aspects of this Zerg rush build order, the Nydus Bust.

Zerg Rush Build Order: Nydus Bust

  • 10/10 Extractor
  • 9/10 Overlord
  • 14/18 Spawning Pool
  • 15/18 Overlord
  • 15/26 Hatchery
  • 14/26 4 Zerglings
  • 16/26 Queen
  • 18/26 8 Zerglings
  • 22/26 Queen
  • 24/28 6 Zerglings
  • 27/28 Overlord
  • 27/36 6 Zerglings
  • 33/36 2
  • 35/36 Overlord
  • 42/44 Lair
  • 42/44 Overlord
  • 43/44 Zergling Speed
  • 44/44 Gas
  • 49/52 2 Overlords
  • 50/52 Nydus Network
  • 49/60 As many Zerglings as you can manage (at least 30)
  • 65/68 Nydus Worm

Things to remember for the Nydus Bust

  • Queens should be using inject larvae
  • Use your first Overlord to scout the edge of the enemy base where you will put the worm
  • Expand to get more minerals / gas quickly
  • If you do not win the bust you are still fine just tech to Hydralisks or Mutalisks and keep going
  • Spawn the Nydus Worm out of sight. It does no good if it gets destroyed before your lings get out and do damage
  • Set your Lair to send new units straight to the network and keep them coming during your attack (hotkeys are critical)

Counters to this Zerg Rush Build Order:

  • Destroy the worm before it lets your units out
  • Detection of your Nydus Network before you have a chance to get the worm down

Targets for the Nydus Bust

  1. Defensive units
  2. Worker Units
  3. If Protoss kill the pylons around production structures to keep them from using them
  4. Nexus / Lair / Command Center

There you have it. A good Zerg rush build order for an intermediate player that wants to win a few matches decisively. Remember this strategy works for a rush against their main base but it can be expanded to attack any expansion that you see that is relatively undefended!

Source by Christopher R Olson

ACN Or Legal Shield – Which Is The Most Likely To Lead You To Network Marketing Success?

ACN and LegalShield (Pre-Paid Legal) would easily fit into a Blue's Clues song "One of these things is not like the other" since they are two completely different products but they do have a couple of things in common:

  • They are both successful network marketing companies
  • They are not wellness and nutrition companies, which make up a huge part of the MLM industry

Who Are ACN And LegalShield (Pre-Paid Legal)?

ACN, or American Communications Network, bills itself as a world's largest direct seller of telecommunications and essential services for home and business. ACN has been around for 18 years, which makes it a mature network marketing company and operates in 23 countries in North America, Europe, Asia and the Pacific.

As one of the first companies in the United States organized solely to design, underwrite and market legal expenditure plans to consumers, LegalShield (formerly Pre-Paid Legal) has been in business for nearly 40 years and now provides legal services to over 1.4 million families across the US and Canada. For one low monthly fee these legal expenditure plans, or memberships, offer a variety of legal services in a way similar to medical reimbursements plans or HMOs.

Both ACN and LegalShield / Pre-Paid Legal have solid histories and offer potential to any person who wants to earn money as a network marketer.

ACN distributors would have the luxury of approaching prospects about services that "already use" like digital phone, internet, long distance, wireless, television, home security and home automation. In a growing growing more technical, and dependent on digital communication and entertainment, this is an expanding market.

LegalShield / Pre-Paid Legal distributors can offer a much-needed preventive service since most people cringe at the thought of engaging an attorney and the cost involved. There are a number of unlimited services, like calling an attorney with questions, and valuable free services like will preparation.

Both companies run on a sound business model with proven compensation plans. Both have been around long enough to prove that they are well-run and profitable companies.

Which Company Is The One For Me?

It comes down to personal choice. Do you get more excited about technology or helping people protect their assets? Your choice may be a simple as your impression of your sponsor or up-line or the resources offered to help you grow your business.

One thing is for certain, your friends and family will not keep you busy for very long and probably will not allow you to grow your business to the point it makes any real money for you. For that, you need to leverage the internet and master lead generation.

There are many quality resources, gurus and courses to help you learn the ins and outs of marketing your ACN or LegalShield / Pre-Paid Legal MLM business. Copy writing, keyword research, SEO, opt-in pages and autosponders are all part of the process of marketing on the internet. If you want a step by step system that will show you how to make money, even from the prospects who say no, then check out the # 1 Attraction Marketing System on the internet.

Source by TW Bradley

Can A Dish Network Satellite Signal Interfere With My Wi-Fi?

The answer is no, a satellite TV system operates on a different radio frequency than that of a Wi-Fi or any wireless local area network system. There is no reason why these signals could interfere with each other.

For instance, a Dish Network satellite signal operates at C-band ranges, which is between 4 and 8 GHz, or the Ku-band range, between 12 and 18 GHz. A Wi-Fi system operates at S-band frequencies of 2.4 to 5 GHz.

Furthermore, a Dish Network satellite signal is in electromagnetic or radio form only until it is reaches the LNB, after which it is converted to electrical signal. When it goes inside the house (which is usually the case), the signal is already in an electrical form that shouldn’t interfere with any Wi-Fi signal.

Now, there are a lot of things that can interfere with a Wi-Fi signal, or at least dampen it to render feeble enough. Then next thing you know, your internet becomes too slow or worse, no connection at all.

Common household devices that emit radio waves can be suspect to interference with your Wi-Fi system. Cordless telephones, baby monitors, car alarms, microwave ovens, even bluetooth devices that are used on gaming consoles are suspect to Wi-Fi interference. There are ways to resolve this, some simple and some as complicated as shifting to an altogether different product, such as using wired phones instead of wireless phones, or using DECT wireless phones that uses different frequency ranges. For some devices, you may need to simply relocate the offending device or else the Wi-Fi modem.

Also, you should consider the Wi-Fi network itself. Usually, Wi-Fi signals can travel for about 100 feet or 30.5 meters, after which you will range extenders or repeaters to increase the router’s range. Physical barriers such as walls and doors can block the signal, so account for all these too.

Lastly, a Wi-Fi signal is susceptible to a rain fade, just like a satellite dish setup. Water is an excellent absorber of radio signals, so you may expect a degradation of signal strength during heavy snow falls, rains or storm.

Source by George Besinga

Installing and Using SNORT on Ubuntu

I spoke about IDS (Intrusion Detection Systems) and IPS (Intrusion Prevention Systems) a few days ago in a question posted by a user. So I thought I would dive a little deeper into the subject with a specific application that I have personally used – Snort. Snort is a very powerful IDS that in later versions can act like an IPS. Snort is free to download and use in the personal environment as well as in the business environment. In fact Snort is used by many enterprises as a very effective option for their business because not only is it free, but it is one of the most powerful IDS’s out there if you know what you are doing when you configure it. Snort can be created as a program that you run when you want on a personal computer or it can be setup to run when your OS starts and protect all computers on your network from attacks.

If you want to use Snort to protect your entire network it will need to be placed in line with your Internet connection. So as an example lets say that you have a business Internet account with your local cable company and you want to protect it with a computer running Snort. The computer running Snort needs to be placed between the cable modem and the router, this way Snort is able to monitor every piece of traffic that comes into your network and is in the best place to discover possible attacks.


We are going to be installing Snort on a computer running Ubuntu 9.04 which at the time of this article is the newest version of Ubuntu. Ubuntu is also a free OS that is available to download, making this IDS a totally free appliance for you, except the cost of the computer. There are two ways to install Snort onto a Ubuntu Distribution and the easiest is to do it through a command line. If your computer is up to date you can simply type:

sudo apt-get install snort

This will then download and install the newest version of snort on your computer through command line. As soon as it is done you will be ready to use snort. But if you run into an error or cannot install Snort through command line you can always go to the Snort website and download the newest version, but make sure that you are downloading the tar.gz file and follow their installation guide to completely setup Snort.

Once installed you can run snort as just a sniffer and have all packets captured and logged but that will create an enormous log file that you would then have to view. Snort works so well because of its use of rules to know which traffic to log and which traffic to ignore. Rules are going to be beyond the scope of this article but I plan on writing an article in the near future on creating rules for Snort.

How Snort runs depends on the flags that you specify when you launch Snort from command line.

Flag Function

-v View packet headers at the console.

-d View application data with IP headers.

-D Run Snort as a daemon.

-e Show data-link layer headers.

-l Run in packet logger mode.

-h Log information relative to the home network.

-b Log information to a single binary file in the logging directory.

-r Read packets contained in a log file.

N Disable packet logging.

-c Specifies which file will be used to provide a rule-set for intrusion detection.

-i Specifies which port you would like Snort to look at when running.

As you can see from above we have a few different options when it comes to flags used with Snort. Lets start with just viewing IP packet headers by using the command sudo snort -v. Be sure to use the sudo command before snort so that it runs in administrative mode, this is needed to open the appropriate port. Now since we did not specify a port for snort to look at it is going to use the eth0 port by default, well I am not using the eth0 port right now as I write this article I am using the wlan0 port which is my wireless card. We will need to us the -i flag to tell Snort to use my wireless card to check for traffic, sudo snort -v -i wlan0. Now Snort will run and display on the screen every packet header that comes across my wlan0 or wireless card, as you can see this is very useful if you want to monitor all traffic across your network but very impractical if you want to protect your network. To end the application once it has started you can simply hit CTRL+C to end the program and bring you back to a command prompt.

We have quickly discussed installing Snort and then running some basic Snort commands to get some output from the program onto our screen. Stay tuned for the next article on configuring Snort rules and running Snort as true IDS with alerting.

Source by Mike L Walton

Leaders Club Review – Leaders Club Facts and Information

Leaders Club is one of the best-kept secrets in the network-marketing world. Few people in network marketing have ever even heard of this resource. Yet Information marketing gurus like Mike Dillard of Magnetic Sponsoring and Ann Sieg of Renegade Network Marketer have both leverage this resource. This article will give you the facts and information about Leaders Club that you can not find anywhere else!

What exactly is Leaders Club? Leaders Club was founder by Andre Vatke in 1994. The fact that this company is still in business after close to 15 years in business says a lot. The company got it's start when a couple of top income earners leveraged. Vatke talents to increase their ROI and cut cost in their marketing campaigns that no one else could do!

Andre Vatke actually started in network marketing at age 14. He built an Amway Organization of over a thousand people before he was 18 years old. He cut his teeth in direct response marketing and network marketing before most people even got started!

Leaders Club is truly the largest resource on the Internet for people in network marketing looking for a total makeover of their business. You can buy products like Mike Dillard's or Ann Sieg, but they only scratch the surface of what you really need to know about sponsoring 5 to 20 plus people ever single month into your business!

I have purchased a couple of Mike Dillard course and they offer good value and new information. Yet, what most people in network marketing need is real mentorship. They need someone to take them by the hand and explain what exactly to do to build their business by design and not by chance!

Leaders Club offers many unique programs: LC offers well over 400 hours of recorded training about subjects like:

* End Prospecting Anxiety
* Overcome Prospecting Challenges
* Increase Internal Motivation
* Gain New Skills & Techniques
* End Self-Sabotage
* Unlock Prospecting Confidence
* Tame Marketing Technology
* Spend Your Budget Wisely
* Control Your Lead Flow
* Dramatically Improve Recruiting
* Become A Leader
* Create Your Own Breakthroughs

The best part about Leaders Club is unlike other training programs that throw totals of content at you, but no guidance. LC has a unique custom training program that is based on your personal characteristics. You actually take a personal profile and they Individualized Success Plan or ISP, lays out a unique 90-day game plan for your success!

In reviewing Leaders Club it is important to point out that this company has tons of resources for the average user. The vast amount of training overwhelms some people. What you must consider a couple things before trying out LC: are you serious about your business? Too many people try a new training program, they try to be successful. LC is only for people who are ready to take control over their business.

To find out more about LC here is a link to a 100 minute recording with some of the Top Leaders in Network Marketing:

Find out more here !

Source by John TS Murphy

Leadership Lessons From The Social Network: Teamwork

The movie, The Social Network, is a powerful portrait of how the founder of Facebook, Mark Zuckerberg and his team, started out with a dream and a $ 1000 start-up, to become the youngest billionaire in the world. At the point of writing, Facebook is valued to be worth at least $ 50 billion, and this would mean that she is worth more than eBay, Yahoo, and Time Warner. This is a very impressive result given the fact that Facebook was launched in February 2004.

There are also plenty of lessons that this movie can teach us about leadership and team management, and this is the final series of the trilogy. There may be certain information in the movie that had been exaggerated to increase the excitation level, as even Zuckerberg himself, calls The Social Network "inaccurate". Here I would take all these information with a pinch of salt and relate most of the lessons learned, from the movie itself, and not from real life.

In this article, I will share about teamwork and how it can help you unlock the true potential as a leader.

Proper Delegation of Work . The whole team can only do well when you know what their job scopes are. In one of the scenes in the Social Network, Mark Zuckerberg wanted to expand The Face Book, and he directed his team on their roles, and what they were supposed to do. And when the two ladies who were present in the living room, asked if they could help in any way, he reduced them without much thought because at that moment, he knew that he did not require their help in any way. On the other hand, he specifically told the others what their tasks were.

Even the Winklevoss brothers had specific roles for their team. And they knew that they were deficient in a particular talent when their programmer left the team to concentrate on his studies. When news broke out that Zuckerberg was able to shut down the Harvard traffic with his "prank", they immediately reached out to him and shared with him their ideas so that he could work for them.

Once you know what your team is supposed to be made up of, you would be able to find the right person for the job. You need to set stretched and measurable goals for them and you also need to be informed of the progress. Effective delegation is not merely pushing away the jobs that were meant for you. Effective delegation is to ensure that the person with the right skill does what he or she knows best.

For example, let's presume that you intend to increase your customer base with a promotional blitz. Firstly, you need to know who your team members are in this project. Secondly, you then need to identify who does what, and their deliverables by a certain time. Thereafter, Jane must come up with the product packages and links with other partners, and John must reach out to X advertising companies with the marketing materials. Once once the planning stage is over, the real action must start so that the project starts to roll with momentum from all parties.

Build Quality Relationships First, then Your Business. Now, not every partner will work together initially. It's your job to iron out the differences. And fast. In The Social Network, Eduardo Saverin had his own ideas in ensuing success of the company. However, Mark Zuckerberg had his own ideas too. And while, Saverin was Chief Financial Officer in the business, Zuckerberg proceeded to pull Sean Parker, founder of Napster into the team. Parker and Saverin were portrayed to have mutual dislike for each other and when your teammates distrust each other, unless you find time to sort things out, many issues will simply be swept under the carpet and it will fester.

As a leader, you need to take the time to understand your partners in the business because people want you to understand their aspirations and dreams. They want you to understand what they are good in, and where they can fit in with regard to projects. Why would you want to place a person with zero knowledge in sales without first training him? And have you spent the time to understand if he even likes sales? So by investing time to understand your core team members in the business, you would be building quality relationships.

Here understand your team, and they will learn to understand you. It will definitely take time and that's the fun and rewarding part in building a team.

Source by Chew Mark

Opportunity Zoom Review – Can Opportunity Zoom Live Up to the Hype?

Opportunity Zoom is a new company in Pre-launch, with plans on changing the video marketing industry, as they claim to be the most powerful Social Media Ad program in the world. This Opportunity Zoom Review will be offering my perspective on whether it's a scam, or legitimate opportunity for you to earn a solid income in the home based business industry.

First off, I have been fortunately enough to build an organization within the network marketing industry which has distributors in 18 different countries. So I definitely have some back ground when it comes to this industry.

There are several different reasons that will determine whether a network marketing company will fail or succeed.This review is dedicated to giving you some of those reasons.

Reason # 1 A network marketing company is worthless unless you have the right people backing it up.By that I mean you have to have a great degree of influence over their people to guide them in a certain direction when you have that a new company can grow very fast.

Reason # 2 A company has to have an unique product and in this case Opportunity Zoom have been testing their powerful Social Media Ad system for a few years now before bringing it to the marketplace and the fact that this is all done on YouTube is a major plus because YouTube is one of the most visited sites on the internet.

So this company is tapping into a busy highway of traffic for people to advertise on.

Once the word gets out that people are winning successful results from promoting their businesses through this medium of advertising with your ad on the thousands of videos Opportunity Zoom upload daily, Big leaders in the network marketing industry will join and then they will become a very successful venture for anyone wherever you are in the network marketing industry or not. Here we have a situation where this brand new company can help you promote your existing business whatever that may be even if it is another network marketing company

Many people who I know, who I respect tremendously for their accomplishments in life and business, are excited about Opportunity Zoom. It appears to be gaining the attention of some industry leaders, and that's ALWAYS a necessity for a start up company.

So far my review on this exciting new company looks promising but I have to say one other thing and that is for any aspiring entrepreneurs out there starting out a word of warning that no matter how great Opportunity Zoom or any other business for that matter may seem , you have to know the major principals behind marketing first.

By that I mean you have to know how to market, generate your own leads, and have your own personally branded marketing system. This is the true formula for success, and leads to most good in the long run. If you follow that formula, and really SEEK knowledge to market your business like a professional … then you will have major advantages over most Opportunity Zoom Distributors.

Source by Here O'Riordan

Top 3 Benefits of Joining a MLM Company

As the number one income earner in my MLM company, I can tell you there are many reasons to join a network marketing company. Network marketing has given me the time freedom to do what I want with who I want, when I want. If you are considering joining a MLM company, here are some considerations:

Joining a MLM company is NOT just for the money (but it helps)

I personally know people who have made millions of dollars in network marketing but that is not the only reason to do it. There are many ways to make a big income in this world but none that I believe have as low amount of risk or as high as amount of residual income as a network marketing company. I got into real estate for residual income and started buying low income rental houses and let me tell you, there is NOTHING low risk about that! When you have low risk and high residual income, that greatly affects your lifestyle. Some people may not need more money but most people would like a better lifestyle.

Joining a Network Marketing company may get you to see the world

Since joining my networking company about 18 months ago, I have won the following company trips:

– A 5 day stay in St Kitts
– a 3 day cruise to the Bahamas
– a 4 day stay at the Atlantis Resort
– a 7 day cruise through the western Caribbean
– a 7 day cruise through the eastern Caribbean

MLM companies like to reward the families of high producers and they do things that no other type of industry does.

Joining and succeeding at a MLM company means no longer asking permission

The biggest thing I do not miss about corporate America is asking for permission. Asking for permission if I can take time off to take my kids to the dentist. I no longer have to ask for permission to take time off to attend someone's wedding. I guess since joining a MLM company, I am unemployable!

Source by Ray Higdon