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Understanding The Lace Fabric

Lace fabric is an open work fabric that consists of a network of yarns that are formed into intricate designs. There are two main types of laces: hand and machine made. Although, the two types come with their pros and cons, it’s usually difficult to differentiate the two using your naked eyes. The easiest way of going about it is using a magnifying glass.

If you take a look at the fabric and the lace lacks an obvious path, chances are that it’s machine made. If on the other hand you take a look at the fabric and you see that it has an obvious path, it’s most likely handmade.

Uses of Lace Fabric

The fabric has many applications. For example, it’s used in decorating apparel and home furnishings where the narrow laces are used for trims and insertions. Wide laces are used for curtains, table cloths and garments.

Laces are made using different designs. The most common designs are:

All-over laces: these are 36″ in width and they are made in such a way that the pattern spreads all over the width of the fabric. The pattern also repeats itself in the fabric’s length.

Flouncing: these are laces that are 18-36″ wide and come with a plain edge at the top. They also come with a scalloped edge at the bottom. The flouncing is used for wide ruffles. In most cases the ruffles are arranged in tiers in order to form a skirt.

Edging: this is lace that is no more than 18″ in width. It’s usually straight at the top and scalloped at the bottom. It’s usually sewn to the edge of a gown, dress, lingerie, blouse or handkerchief.

Medallion: the lace comes in a single design that is applied to a fabric that is ground for ornamentation. The lace is usually used in the corners of towels or napkins. Here it’s used as an ornament for blouse, lingerie or dress.

Parts of Lace Construction

A lace fabric has many parts that play a major role in identifying the various types of laces. These parts include:

Bride: it’s the fine yarn that forms the mesh. It forms the mesh which provides the background between the prominent parts of the pattern.

Cordonnet: it’s the heavy yarn that outlines the pattern

Toile: this one represents the predominant parts of a pattern that is made by knotting, twisting, braiding and looping.

Picot: it’s a decorative loop that is used both in the pattern and edge of the lace.



Source by Mohammad Rustam Ali

N10-006 Exam Questions

Question: 1

A technician needs to limit the amount of broadcast traffic on a network and allow different segments to communicate with each other. Which of the following options would satisfy these requirements?

A. Add a router and enable OSPF.

B. Add a layer 3 switch and create a VLAN.

C. Add a bridge between two switches.

D. Add a firewalland implement proper ACL.

Answer: B

Question: 2

The network install is failing redundancy testing at the MDF. The traffic being transported is a mixture of multicast and unicast signals. Which of the following would BEST handle the rerouting caused by the disruption of service?

A. Layer 3 switch

B. Proxy server

C. Layer 2 switch

D. Smart hub

Answer: A

Question: 3

Which of the following network devices use ACLs to prevent unauthorized access into company systems?

A. IDS

B. Firewall

C. Content filter

D. Load balancer

Answer: B

Question: 4

Which of the following is used to define how much bandwidth can be used by various protocols on the network?

A. Traffic shaping

B. High availability

C. Load balancing

D. Fault tolerance

Answer: A

Question: 5

Which of the following is used to authenticate remote workers who connect from offsite? (Select TWO).

A. OSPF

B. VTP trunking

C. Virtual PBX

D. RADIUS

E. 802.1x

Answer: D,E

Question: 6

Which of the following provides accounting, authorization, and authentication via a centralized privileged database, as well as, challenge/response and password encryption?

A. Multifactor authentication

B. ISAKMP

C. TACACS+

D. Network access control

Answer: C

Question: 7

A technician needs to set aside addresses in a DHCP pool so that certain servers always receive the same address. Which of the following should be configured?

A. Leases

B. Helper addresses

C. Scopes

D. Reservations

Answer: D

Question: 8

Joe, a network technician, is setting up a DHCP server on a LAN segment. Which of the following options should Joe configure in the DHCP scope, in order to allow hosts on that LAN segment using dynamic IP addresses, to be able to access the Internet and internal company servers? (Select THREE).

A. Default gateway

B. Subnet mask

C. Reservations

D. TFTP server

E. Lease expiration time of 1 day

F. DNS servers

G. Bootp

Answer: A,B,F

Question: 9

A technician just completed a new external website and setup access rules in the firewall. After some testing, only users outside the internal network can reach the site. The website responds to a ping from the internal network and resolves the proper public address. Which of the following could the technician do to fix this issue while causing internal users to route to the website using an internal address?

A. Configure NAT on the firewall

B. Implement a split horizon DNS

C. Place the server in the DMZ

D. Adjust the proper internal ACL

Answer: B

Question: 10

When configuring a new server, a technician requests that an MX record be created in DNS for the new server, but the record was not entered properly. Which of the following was MOST likely installed that required an MX record to function properly?

A. Load balancer

B. FTP server

C. Firewall DMZ

D. Mail server

Answer: D

Question: 11

Which of the following protocols uses label-switching routers and label-edge routers to forward traffic?

A. BGP

B. OSPF

C. IS-IS

D. MPLS

Answer: D

Question: 12

Which of the following is MOST likely to use an RJ-11 connector to connect a computer to an ISP using a POTS line?

A. Multilayer switch

B. Access point

C. Analog modem

D. DOCSIS modem

Answer: C

Question: 13

An administrator notices an unused cable behind a cabinet that is terminated with a DB-9 connector. Which of the following protocols was MOST likely used on this cable?

A. RS-232

B. 802.3

C. ATM

D. Tokenring

Answer: A

Question: 14

Which of the following connection types is used to terminate DS3 connections in a telecommunications facility?

A. 66 block

B. BNC

C. F-connector

D. RJ-11

Answer: B

Question: 15

An F-connector is used on which of the following types of cabling?

A. CAT3

B. Single mode fiber

C. CAT5

D. RG6

Answer: D

Question: 16

A network technician must utilize multimode fiber to uplink a new networking device. Which of the following Ethernet standards could the technician utilize? (Select TWO).

A. 1000Base-LR

B. 1000Base-SR

C. 1000Base-T

D. 10GBase-LR

E. 10GBase-SR

F. 10GBase-T

Answer: B,E

Question: 17

CORRECT TEXT

You have been tasked with testing a CAT5e cable. A summary of the test results can be found on the screen.

Step 1: Select the tool that was used to create the cable test results.

Step 2: Interpret the test results and select the option that explains the results. After you are done with your analysis, click the ‘Submit Cable Test Analysis’ button.

Question: 18

A network engineer needs to set up a topology that will not fail if there is an outage on a single piece of the topology. However, the computers need to wait to talk on the network to avoid congestions. Which of the following topologies would the engineer implement?

A. Star

B. Bus

C. Ring

D. Mesh

Answer: C

Question: 19

A network topology that utilizes a central device with point-to-point connections to all other devices is which of the following?

A. Star

B. Ring

C. Mesh

D. Bus

Answer: A

Question: 20

Which of the following network topologies has a central, single point of failure?

A. Ring

B. Star

C. Hybrid

D. Mesh

Answer: B

Question: 21

Which of the following refers to a network that spans several buildings that are within walking distance of each other?

A. CAN

B. WAN

C. PAN

D. MAN

Answer: A

Question: 22

Which of the following network infrastructure implementations would be used to support files being transferred between Bluetooth-enabled smartphones?

A. PAN

B. LAN

C. WLAN

D. MAN

Answer: A



Source by Monika Bergmann

Millionaires to Be Made in Network Marketing During Poor Economy – Smart Business Plan!

How’s that for a change of pace, some good news? More good news, you and I can be one of the new millionaires. It seems that after being in the auto industry for 18 years and seeing the possibility of the collapse of the Big 3 I should want to climb under a rock and hide. But, I don’t need to… I have a Plan B, something so solid that I will be one of the next millionaires.

We are officially in a recession and it is a bad one. Many families are exploring options on how to make additional household income. Making it through tough times means diversifying your income sources and a poor economy tends to force us to take a look at income avenues we never considered before. Great advice: Network Marketing is a real source for fast income.

The Network Marketing Industry has been around for a long time and it has proven not only to remain stable during recessionary times, but it actually thrives. The growth in this industry during a poor economy is explained by the amount of people needing additional income and turning to it for the answer. Network Marketing is recession proof, making it a real source for a substantial income. The opportunity in networking is two fold, the first is obvious… if chosen carefully your new business will begin generating income as early as next week. Second, by starting a home based business you will now enjoy much needed tax breaks.

As you have probably guessed I am a Network Marketer. I went full time in this field in February of 2007. Since then the economy has declined drastically but, my business has grown substantially. People that I had spoken with 2 years ago that thought networking was “taboo” are now saying yes. Professionals and high caliber people lay down to the idea. What changed… not network marketing, just the way people viewed their income opportunities and this one makes sense. That is the reason new millionaires will be made during this recession… because people are looking to Network marketing where there is a huge income potential.

Caution: When choosing which networking company to go with please do not just jump on the first one you come across. There are over 10,000 of them as we speak and with those numbers there are bound to be a few bad apples in the bunch just like any other business. Please refer to this article on How to Choose the Right Network Marketing [http://www.squidoo.com/why-network-marketing-failures] Company.



Source by Michelle Corteggiano

8 Things You Should Know About Kyani

1. Kyani is part of the health and wellness revolution. The health and wellness industry is a 500 billion dollar industry and predicted to grow to a 1 trillion dollar industry with the next 5 years.

2. Kyani invested over $300 million dollars prior to opening its doors, which is considered the most secure launch in MLM history. With this great financial support, Kyani has been set to endure the long haul.

3. Kyani is led by and experienced CEO, Michael Breshears. Michael has worked for many retail and sales companies, and has ample experience in network marketing companies. He brings his expertise to the table, along with co-founder Dick Powell, who developed the products and devised the marketing plan to get these products to as many people as possible.

4. The company is over 18 months old, as 90% of all network marketing companies that fail, do so in the first 18 months. November of 2005 marked the begging of Kyani, which makes it 2 ½ years old. It made its official launch in August of 2007.

5. Kyani has products that are both unique and highly consumable. Having products that are highly consumable means repeated sales.

– Kyani Sunrise- made with blueberries. Not just your ordinary, every day blueberries, but the Alaska wild blueberries or otherwise known as the “Super Blueberry.” The Alaska wild blueberry sits at the top of the blueberry kingdom. Because of Alaska’s harsh freeze/thaw climate and having to protect itself from the 24-hour-a-day summer sun, the Alaska wild blueberry has up to 10 times more antioxidants than cultivated blueberries. Kyani Sunrise also contains, with the Alaskan wild blueberries, pomegranate, wolf berry, Noni, Aloe Vera, and other berry juices.

– Kyani Sunset-is an Omega-3 powerhouse. Sunset combines Alaska wild salmon fish oil with tocotrienols (pure Vitamin E). Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids are the two polyunsaturated fatty acids that are good for you. But Omega-6 (which are common in most foods we eat) and Omega-3 fatty acids are only beneficial as long as they’re consumed in balanced amounts. Omega-3 fatty acids can help maintain healthy cholesterol levels, maintain a healthy circulatory system and maintain a healthy respiratory system as well as play a role in supporting breast and colon health.

6. Currently Kyani is a ground floor opportunity, with less than 30,000 distributors. Note: If a company has less than 100,000 distributors it is consider to be a once in a lifetime opportunity.

7. Kyani just went global! They bought another MLM company for 250 million dollars, which is licensed to distribute to over 40 countries. Kyani just launched in Sweden and Japan. Japan is the gate way to Asia. Expect other Asia countries to follow the lead of Japan. Mexico is set to launch in 6 months, with other counties soon to follow.

8. Kyani has put together a very sizzling compensation plan, with over 5 different ways of getting paid, that encompasses true up-front bonuses and a residual payout. They give distributor 100% matching checks for anybody that they personally sponsor.



Source by Aldo Gonzalez

Choosing the Right Fixed Coaxial Attenuator

Coaxial attenuators are resistive networks, pi or t networks, connector to RF / Microwave connectors. These attenuators are commonly used to adjust signal levels in military & commercial rf & microwave systems. When choosing the right coaxial attenuator for your application, one should keep in mind certain key parameters.

Connector type: SMA attenuators, BNC attenuators, & type N attenuators are very common. One can also buy fairly readily attenuators with TNC, 2.92mm, & 2.4mm connectors. There are a few manufacturers who offer QMA, 1.85, SMB, F, & Reverse Polarity (N, SMA, TNC) attenuators. Of course coaxial adapters can always be used with any attenuator connector, but we all prefer to avoid them unless necessary.

Connector material: Both Brass & Stainless Steel are commonplace. One must watch the associated torque values; a brass sma requires 3-5 in-lbs, a stainless steel sma requires 7-10 in-lbs, depending upon the manufacturer. Using a 10 in-lb torque wrench on a brass sma will usually twist the sma nut right off the part! SMA, BNC, Type N, & TNC attenuators are available in both materials, with brass being used for many commercial applications, & stainless lasting over increased mates/demates. Undertorquing certain attenuators, like the sma, can cause degraded performance at higher frequencies, often 15 ghz & above.

Power CW: For small signal applications to 18ghz 2 watts is the most commonly available attenuator, though there are a few 0.5watt & 1 watt attenuators also available. Above 18ghz the choices are less, often just 0.5watts at 50ghz. Likewise below 18ghz higher powers are available, with uncooled 500 watt units at 3ghz commonplace. Power CW is usually specified at room temperature, but derates as temperature increases; a 2 watt unit @ 25C may only handle 0.5watts @ 125 C

Frequency: As frequency increases, the resistive chips must be made with more precision, & hence cost more. Commonly available bands are 0-6ghz, 0-18ghz, 0-26ghx, 0-40ghz, & 0-50ghz, 0-65ghz. As the construction is simply a resistive network, the lower frequency range will always be 0. At the upper frequency limit is where one can expect the most ripple in passband response, & the widest deviation from desired attenuator.

Directionality: Small signal attenuators are bidirectional, either port can be used as the input. Most of the very high power attenuators are unidirectional, they have an input & output, & hooking the DUT backwards is normally fatal. This is because high power attenuators use cascaded attenuator chips; perhaps 2-3 db in the first chip, 3-5 in the second, 6-30 in the third, effectively spreading the heat to be dissipated along the length of the attenuator. Applying power to the output results in virtually all the power being dissipated in one chip which then overheats & fails.

DC Handling: Being resistive networks, coaxial attenuators aren’t intended to handle DC & will change the DC. Often the attenuator will dissipate too much heat in its resistive elements & fail. One can bypass the attenuator with dc blocks & bias-t’s. A few bias passing attenuators are available which incorporate the dc blocks & bias t’s.

Contact Materials: Almost all available attenuators use BeCu female contacts, & Brass male contacts. A few consumer applications will substitute brass for the female contacts for cost reduction, but these should be avoided for all but consumer applications.

Electrical Specifications: One can expect these specifications: VSWR, Attenuation value, Attenuation accuracy (tolerance), Frequency (upper), Power Handling CW, Power Handling Peak, Operating Temperature Range, Impedance, Connector Material, and Contact Material.



Source by Bob Hawkins

SingleFling.com is Making a Major Statement in the Dating Arena

Follow the new age process of meeting real single men and women on the Internet, Single Fling.com. The Internet’s only singles social network.

If you are a paying member of virtually any singles website already then you may have already figured out that you may not be receiving your moneys worth.

The dating site member will in most cases always simply retrieve unread e-mail, then usually log off. This is because a dating site member does not always have a variety of features to keep them involved in the community.

At SingleFling.com located at singlefling.com users stay much more active in the singles community. This is due to the fact that SingleFling.com has one of the most featured packed services to date. These features are enhanced for the end user to ensure both ease of navigation as well and to provide other useful conveniences.

The service itself is geared towards adult crowds over the age of 18. It has been called by ADULT Connections Network(TM) the “sexy singles network” due to it’s slightly racy push into the world of uncensored photo galleries and free adult chat rooms.

SingleFling.com free adult chat rooms are one of kind in that, well it is high quality and truly free. Registered members can easily instant message other users as well as invite other users from the chat rooms to member created private chat rooms. There is even more though to the free adult chat rooms. This is probably the best part of the he free adult chat rooms, they are also fully featured video chat rooms where members can easily watch video users upload to their profiles or stream live web cams.

As far as what makes SingleFling.com a social network rather than your average singles dating website, we begin with the features. Like many dating websites users can contact members via the websites messaging system. SingleFling.com takes contacting a member one-step further by allowing it’s members an option to either send contacts to the member’s SingleFling.com mailbox, the members personal e-mail address directly or both.

Upload, Upload, Upload photos, music, videos and more. SingleFling.com members now can easily contribute music, personal videos and up to 50 photos to their personal as well as SingleFling.com public galleries. Registered members have complete access to users media with abilities to download other members media directly to their computer. With enhanced media features user are allowed the power to take control of their communities media content.

Getting your profile noticed is guaranteed to be simple, but only if you are willing to take the time to take advantage of all of your options to expose yourself. Users that create their own SingleFling.com Blog, speak out in public and private forums and post free personal ads in the SingleFling.com Classifieds definitely benefit most from SingleFling.com.

To best sum up a description of SingleFling.com. I can say if you are familiar with the service such as MySpace…try picturing MySpace with a mild adult theme.



Source by John Mavis Sr.

StarCraft 2 Strategies – Zerg Rush Build Order – Nydus Bust

Looking for a good Zerg rush build order for Starcraft 2? Well look no longer my fellow gamers you've found one. This Zerg rush build order is not one for newbs nor is it necessarily one for advanced players. Its more of an intermediate build order that can catch an unsuspecting player off guard and land you a decisive win. So lets take a look at the technical aspects of this Zerg rush build order, the Nydus Bust.

Zerg Rush Build Order: Nydus Bust

  • 10/10 Extractor
  • 9/10 Overlord
  • 14/18 Spawning Pool
  • 15/18 Overlord
  • 15/26 Hatchery
  • 14/26 4 Zerglings
  • 16/26 Queen
  • 18/26 8 Zerglings
  • 22/26 Queen
  • 24/28 6 Zerglings
  • 27/28 Overlord
  • 27/36 6 Zerglings
  • 33/36 2
  • 35/36 Overlord
  • 42/44 Lair
  • 42/44 Overlord
  • 43/44 Zergling Speed
  • 44/44 Gas
  • 49/52 2 Overlords
  • 50/52 Nydus Network
  • 49/60 As many Zerglings as you can manage (at least 30)
  • 65/68 Nydus Worm

Things to remember for the Nydus Bust

  • Queens should be using inject larvae
  • Use your first Overlord to scout the edge of the enemy base where you will put the worm
  • Expand to get more minerals / gas quickly
  • If you do not win the bust you are still fine just tech to Hydralisks or Mutalisks and keep going
  • Spawn the Nydus Worm out of sight. It does no good if it gets destroyed before your lings get out and do damage
  • Set your Lair to send new units straight to the network and keep them coming during your attack (hotkeys are critical)

Counters to this Zerg Rush Build Order:

  • Destroy the worm before it lets your units out
  • Detection of your Nydus Network before you have a chance to get the worm down

Targets for the Nydus Bust

  1. Defensive units
  2. Worker Units
  3. If Protoss kill the pylons around production structures to keep them from using them
  4. Nexus / Lair / Command Center

There you have it. A good Zerg rush build order for an intermediate player that wants to win a few matches decisively. Remember this strategy works for a rush against their main base but it can be expanded to attack any expansion that you see that is relatively undefended!



Source by Christopher R Olson

ACN Or Legal Shield – Which Is The Most Likely To Lead You To Network Marketing Success?

ACN and LegalShield (Pre-Paid Legal) would easily fit into a Blue's Clues song "One of these things is not like the other" since they are two completely different products but they do have a couple of things in common:

  • They are both successful network marketing companies
  • They are not wellness and nutrition companies, which make up a huge part of the MLM industry

Who Are ACN And LegalShield (Pre-Paid Legal)?

ACN, or American Communications Network, bills itself as a world's largest direct seller of telecommunications and essential services for home and business. ACN has been around for 18 years, which makes it a mature network marketing company and operates in 23 countries in North America, Europe, Asia and the Pacific.

As one of the first companies in the United States organized solely to design, underwrite and market legal expenditure plans to consumers, LegalShield (formerly Pre-Paid Legal) has been in business for nearly 40 years and now provides legal services to over 1.4 million families across the US and Canada. For one low monthly fee these legal expenditure plans, or memberships, offer a variety of legal services in a way similar to medical reimbursements plans or HMOs.

Both ACN and LegalShield / Pre-Paid Legal have solid histories and offer potential to any person who wants to earn money as a network marketer.

ACN distributors would have the luxury of approaching prospects about services that "already use" like digital phone, internet, long distance, wireless, television, home security and home automation. In a growing growing more technical, and dependent on digital communication and entertainment, this is an expanding market.

LegalShield / Pre-Paid Legal distributors can offer a much-needed preventive service since most people cringe at the thought of engaging an attorney and the cost involved. There are a number of unlimited services, like calling an attorney with questions, and valuable free services like will preparation.

Both companies run on a sound business model with proven compensation plans. Both have been around long enough to prove that they are well-run and profitable companies.

Which Company Is The One For Me?

It comes down to personal choice. Do you get more excited about technology or helping people protect their assets? Your choice may be a simple as your impression of your sponsor or up-line or the resources offered to help you grow your business.

One thing is for certain, your friends and family will not keep you busy for very long and probably will not allow you to grow your business to the point it makes any real money for you. For that, you need to leverage the internet and master lead generation.

There are many quality resources, gurus and courses to help you learn the ins and outs of marketing your ACN or LegalShield / Pre-Paid Legal MLM business. Copy writing, keyword research, SEO, opt-in pages and autosponders are all part of the process of marketing on the internet. If you want a step by step system that will show you how to make money, even from the prospects who say no, then check out the # 1 Attraction Marketing System on the internet.



Source by TW Bradley

Can A Dish Network Satellite Signal Interfere With My Wi-Fi?

The answer is no, a satellite TV system operates on a different radio frequency than that of a Wi-Fi or any wireless local area network system. There is no reason why these signals could interfere with each other.

For instance, a Dish Network satellite signal operates at C-band ranges, which is between 4 and 8 GHz, or the Ku-band range, between 12 and 18 GHz. A Wi-Fi system operates at S-band frequencies of 2.4 to 5 GHz.

Furthermore, a Dish Network satellite signal is in electromagnetic or radio form only until it is reaches the LNB, after which it is converted to electrical signal. When it goes inside the house (which is usually the case), the signal is already in an electrical form that shouldn’t interfere with any Wi-Fi signal.

Now, there are a lot of things that can interfere with a Wi-Fi signal, or at least dampen it to render feeble enough. Then next thing you know, your internet becomes too slow or worse, no connection at all.

Common household devices that emit radio waves can be suspect to interference with your Wi-Fi system. Cordless telephones, baby monitors, car alarms, microwave ovens, even bluetooth devices that are used on gaming consoles are suspect to Wi-Fi interference. There are ways to resolve this, some simple and some as complicated as shifting to an altogether different product, such as using wired phones instead of wireless phones, or using DECT wireless phones that uses different frequency ranges. For some devices, you may need to simply relocate the offending device or else the Wi-Fi modem.

Also, you should consider the Wi-Fi network itself. Usually, Wi-Fi signals can travel for about 100 feet or 30.5 meters, after which you will range extenders or repeaters to increase the router’s range. Physical barriers such as walls and doors can block the signal, so account for all these too.

Lastly, a Wi-Fi signal is susceptible to a rain fade, just like a satellite dish setup. Water is an excellent absorber of radio signals, so you may expect a degradation of signal strength during heavy snow falls, rains or storm.



Source by George Besinga

Installing and Using SNORT on Ubuntu

I spoke about IDS (Intrusion Detection Systems) and IPS (Intrusion Prevention Systems) a few days ago in a question posted by a user. So I thought I would dive a little deeper into the subject with a specific application that I have personally used – Snort. Snort is a very powerful IDS that in later versions can act like an IPS. Snort is free to download and use in the personal environment as well as in the business environment. In fact Snort is used by many enterprises as a very effective option for their business because not only is it free, but it is one of the most powerful IDS’s out there if you know what you are doing when you configure it. Snort can be created as a program that you run when you want on a personal computer or it can be setup to run when your OS starts and protect all computers on your network from attacks.

If you want to use Snort to protect your entire network it will need to be placed in line with your Internet connection. So as an example lets say that you have a business Internet account with your local cable company and you want to protect it with a computer running Snort. The computer running Snort needs to be placed between the cable modem and the router, this way Snort is able to monitor every piece of traffic that comes into your network and is in the best place to discover possible attacks.

Installation:

We are going to be installing Snort on a computer running Ubuntu 9.04 which at the time of this article is the newest version of Ubuntu. Ubuntu is also a free OS that is available to download, making this IDS a totally free appliance for you, except the cost of the computer. There are two ways to install Snort onto a Ubuntu Distribution and the easiest is to do it through a command line. If your computer is up to date you can simply type:

sudo apt-get install snort

This will then download and install the newest version of snort on your computer through command line. As soon as it is done you will be ready to use snort. But if you run into an error or cannot install Snort through command line you can always go to the Snort website and download the newest version, but make sure that you are downloading the tar.gz file and follow their installation guide to completely setup Snort.

Once installed you can run snort as just a sniffer and have all packets captured and logged but that will create an enormous log file that you would then have to view. Snort works so well because of its use of rules to know which traffic to log and which traffic to ignore. Rules are going to be beyond the scope of this article but I plan on writing an article in the near future on creating rules for Snort.

How Snort runs depends on the flags that you specify when you launch Snort from command line.

Flag Function

-v View packet headers at the console.

-d View application data with IP headers.

-D Run Snort as a daemon.

-e Show data-link layer headers.

-l Run in packet logger mode.

-h Log information relative to the home network.

-b Log information to a single binary file in the logging directory.

-r Read packets contained in a log file.

N Disable packet logging.

-c Specifies which file will be used to provide a rule-set for intrusion detection.

-i Specifies which port you would like Snort to look at when running.

As you can see from above we have a few different options when it comes to flags used with Snort. Lets start with just viewing IP packet headers by using the command sudo snort -v. Be sure to use the sudo command before snort so that it runs in administrative mode, this is needed to open the appropriate port. Now since we did not specify a port for snort to look at it is going to use the eth0 port by default, well I am not using the eth0 port right now as I write this article I am using the wlan0 port which is my wireless card. We will need to us the -i flag to tell Snort to use my wireless card to check for traffic, sudo snort -v -i wlan0. Now Snort will run and display on the screen every packet header that comes across my wlan0 or wireless card, as you can see this is very useful if you want to monitor all traffic across your network but very impractical if you want to protect your network. To end the application once it has started you can simply hit CTRL+C to end the program and bring you back to a command prompt.

We have quickly discussed installing Snort and then running some basic Snort commands to get some output from the program onto our screen. Stay tuned for the next article on configuring Snort rules and running Snort as true IDS with alerting.



Source by Mike L Walton