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Importance of Computer Forensics

Computer forensics is the process of using the latest knowledge of science and technology with computer sciences to collect, analyze and present proofs to the criminal or civil courts. Network administrator and security staff administer and manage networks and information systems should have complete knowledge of computer forensics. The meaning of the word “forensics” is “to bring to the court”. Forensics is the process which deals in finding evidence and recovering the data. The evidence includes many forms such as finger prints, DNA test or complete files on computer hard drives etc. The consistency and standardization of computer forensics across courts is not recognized strongly because it is new discipline.

It is necessary for network administrator and security staff of networked organizations to practice computer forensics and should have knowledge of laws because rate of cyber crimes is increasing greatly. It is very interesting for mangers and personnel who want to know how computer forensics can become a strategic element of their organization security. Personnel, security staff and network administrator should know all the issues related to computer forensics. Computer experts use advanced tools and techniques to recover deleted, damaged or corrupt data and evidence against attacks and intrusions. These evidences are collected to follow cases in criminal and civil courts against those culprits who committed computer crimes.

The survivability and integrity of network infrastructure of any organization depends on the application of computer forensics. In the current situations computer forensics should be taken as the basic element of computer and network security. It would be a great advantage for your company if you know all the technical and legal aspects of computer forensics. If your network is attacked and intruder is caught then good knowledge about computer forensics will help to provide evidence and prosecute the case in the court.

There are many risks if you practice computer forensics badly. If you don’t take it in account then vital evidence might be destroyed. New laws are being developed to protect customers’ data; but if certain kind of data is not properly protected then many liabilities can be assigned to the organization. New rules can bring organizations in criminal or civil courts if the organizations fail to protect customer data. Organization money can also be saved by applying computer forensics. Some mangers and personnel spent a large portion of their IT budget for network and computer security. It is reported by International Data Corporation (IDC) that software for vulnerability assessment and intrusion detection will approach $1.45 billion in 2006.

As organizations are increasing in number and the risk of hackers and contractors is also increase so they have developed their own security systems. Organizations have developed security devices for their network like intrusions detection systems (IDS), proxies, firewalls which report on the security status of network of an organization. So technically the major goal of computer forensics is to recognize, gather, protect and examine data in such a way that protects the integrity of the collected evidence to use it efficiently and effectively in a case. Investigation of computer forensics has some typical aspects. In first area computer experts who investigate computers should know the type of evidence they are looking for to make their search effective. Computer crimes are wide in range such as child pornography, theft of personal data and destruction of data or computer.

Second, computer experts or investigators should use suitable tools. The investigators should have good knowledge of software, latest techniques and methods to recover the deleted, encrypted or damaged files and prevent further damage in the process of recovery. In computer forensics two kinds of data are collected. Persistent data is stored on local disk drives or on other media and is protected when the computer is powered off or turned off. Volatile data is stored in random access memory and is lost when the computer is turned off or loses power. Volatile data is located in caches, random access memory (RAM) and registers. Computer expert or investigator should know trusted ways to capture volatile data. Security staff and network administrators should have knowledge about network and computer administration task effects on computer forensics process and the ability to recover data lost in a security incident.

Source by Radha Kishan

10 Schools Offering a Computer Science Online Degree

Computer and information technology is one of those fortunate career fields with great job outlook and expected continuous growth. By earning a computer science online degree, you can expect to begin working immediately and have a steady income with great rewards as long as you are dedicated and driven. As long as you earn an accredited distance learning degree, nothing should be able to stop you.

There are many online school options to choose from, but the following are ten of the best choices to obtain your distance learning degree from at the moment:

1.Bryant and Stratton College Online: You can earn an associate degree in IT/CS including Computer Networking or Network Security, and begin working immediately.

2.Colorado Technical University – Online Grad: Continuing students can choose from masters and PhD programs including Database Administration, Information Assurance, Information Technology and Network Security.

3.Everest University Online: Everest offers online degree options ranging from the associate’s degree in IT/CS to the bachelor’s degree in computer science.

4.Kaplan Continuing Education: Earn information technology certificates including Cisco Certifications and Microsoft Certifications. Kaplan also offers a full range of degree programs from associate’s to master’s in computer and information technology.

5.Northcentral University: Choose from a PhD in IT/CS, master’s degree in IT/CS, or certificates in IT specializations such as Computer Science, Information Assurance and Network Security.

6.Saint Leo University: This online school offers a bachelor’s and master’s degree in IT, Computer Science and Network Security.

7.University of Phoenix: This trusted online university offers several IT programs including the bachelor’s or master’s in IT/CS, Computer Networking, Programming, Database Administration, Java Programming, Network Administration, Telecom and Wireless and Web Development.

8.Villanova University Online: Earn certificates in IT or a degree in Network Security.

9.Virginia College: The online programs from this college include bachelor’s and master’s degrees in IT/CS with specializations in Computer Networking and Network Security.

10.Walden University: Walden is one of the most reputable online universities, offering bachelor’s and master’s degrees in IT/ Computer Science, with specializations such as Computer Programming, Database Administration, Information Technology, Network Administration and Network Security.

Source by Erik R Johnson

What Is an UTM Appliance?

UTM stands for Unified Threat Management. UTMs in lay man’s language are basically a collective approach to tackle the evolving threat landscape to the networks and data, through a simple to use solution.

To begin with let’s define network threats. Network threats today include Spyware, Trojans, Worms, Malware, Web exploits, Data theft, Identity theft, Viruses, Spam, Blended threats, Bots, SQL injections, Buffer overflows, DoS/DDoS attacks, Policy violations and so much more. Defining threat in today’s network landscape is not so easy, as we have threats evolving every day. That is where we have the UTMs walking in.

UTMs have evolved from traditional firewall/VPN products and include multiple security features integrated over a single platform to make security simple, yet highly effective. Multiple features offered by most UTM providers include:

  • Stateful Inspection Firewall
  • VPN (SSL VPN & IPSec)
  • Intrusion Prevention System
  • Anti-Virus & Anti-Spyware
  • Anti-Spam
  • Web Filtering
  • Bandwidth Management
  • Multiple Link Management

Most of the above security features were earlier handled by multiple point solutions, which made management very difficult and also increased the cost considerably. But UTMs offer comprehensive security to organizations, ranging from large enterprises to small and branch offices by integrating network security management, user monitoring, and reporting functions – all streamlined in one appliance. By providing comprehensive security over a single appliance, it minimizes capital and operational expense and simplifies security implementation.

Looking at the business needs, UTMs cover varying areas including:

  • Network Security
  • Web & Content Security
  • Email Security
  • Application Security
  • Secure Remote Access
  • Logging & Reporting
  • WAN Connectivity
  • Data Leakage Prevention
  • Managing Bandwidth
  • Centralized Management

Now a day’s we have UTMs with Identity-based security which offer strong protection while retaining business flexibility based on work profiles. UTM’s exclusive Layer 8 technology treats user identity as the 8 Layer or the human layer in the network protocol stack, enabling organizations to overcome the limitations of conventional UTMs/firewalls which bind security to IP addresses alone. By implementing Layer 8 security in their networks, administrators can gain real-time visibility into the online activity of users while creating security policies based on their usernames.

With newer technologies like WiFi and Virtualization, UTMs are now also available for such networks. For WiFi enable networks such appliances allow administrators to apply security policies offering visibility over user activity in the Wi-Fi network. For virtual networks, UTMs offer network security to varied forms of environments including virtual data-centers, “Security-in-a-Box” set-up for MSSPs/organizations, and “Office-in-a-Box” set-ups. Based on the need and environment requirement of the networks, UTMs can be chosen.

Source by Oushee Ouseph

Prime Numbers and Cyber Security

Would you like to see a nifty example of the way in which the world of mathematics can have unexpected ramifications on the world?

You may be aware of the role that the special numbers e=2.718… , pi=3.14… , and the golden ratio Phi=1.618… , have in our world. It turns out that the prime numbers – numbers that cannot be divided or reduced into small numbers – also have a special property: they are ideally suited for helping craft a secure banking system.

You see – the security systems that allow you to securely use the ATM, or online banking, and allow you to send information securely over public networks – use a form of cryptography, or coding, that is based in the prime numbers.

Amazingly, most of the algorithms – in other words, methods – for encoding your information are based in a 300-year-old discovery about the prime numbers, Fermat’s Little Theorem.

The French mathematician Fermat discovered a relatively simple property about the way prime numbers behave when they are multiplied together, and was able to explain why this simple property is true. At the time though, his discovery had no obvious application – it was simply an interesting fact about the prime numbers.

Then, in the mid 20th century, a team of cryptographers – people whose job is to help encode information – found a way to use Fermat’s Little Theorem, this discovery about prime numbers – to safely and securely send information. They used Fermat’s Little Theorem as part of a “recipe” for encoding numbers, the RSA Algorithm.

Without going into too much detail, what happens when a system uses the RSA Algorithm or a similar algorithm – say, when you access the ATM: the ATM stores your debit card information and PIN number as an actual number – a string of 0’s and 1’s. It then encodes this number using a “key” that only the ATM, and the bank, know.

Then the ATM sends the debit card information to the bank using this “key” – and if a spy, or criminal, or eavesdropper, observes the message – it is encoded. In order to decode the message, they would have to know the “key”, and in order to determine the key, they would have to factor a number that is several hundred digits in length. This is very difficult, nearly impossible, even for the fastest and most advanced computers, so your information is safe.

What’s remarkable about this is – it’s all based in the 300-year-old discovery of the mathematician Fermat. At the time, Fermat had no clue that what he discovered would eventually hold the key for keeping information secure in the 21st century.

This is one of the many remarkable properties of the world of mathematics – it has many unexpected links with the physical universe, many unexpected applications that are sometimes not apparent for even centuries.

Source by Scott A McKinney

Network Monitoring Solutions

Identifying what programs are using your computer's network connection should be pretty simple. You can check your taskbar and see if you have any download managers, web browsers and other applications or games that may depend on the Internet. But keeping your system connected to the Internet without a firewall or virus scanner can pose some security risks especially if your operating system is not updated. What makes things worse is that you will not be able to detect there are network problems unless you use one or more network monitoring tools. There are a few reasons as to why it is important to perform some network monitoring on your system every now and then.

On a security perspective, network monitoring tools can identify any hidden programs that may be sending or receiving data. This can be bad in both ways since some malware are capable of sending your personal details while other malware can retrieve the necessary commands issued by a hacker to cause more damage to your system. By discovering which programs are doing these things, you can take action immediately. Network monitoring solutions without antivirus capabilities may not be able to tell the difference between bad programs and good programs but you can still try to halt the network activity once you spot it. Network monitors may also deny programs that are using the network that virus scanners were unable to detect.

Network monitors can also be useful tools in determining why your network or Internet connection is so slow. There could be a single application running in the background that is trying to use all of the available bandwidth to update something or possibly acquire a malware. If the program is experiencing heavy loads, other applications such as web browsers may have difficulty in accessing the Internet. Once again, monitoring it can forcibly close those applications to restore bandwidth. Other network monitors may even allow you to set a bandwidth cap so the bandwidth distribution is more balanced.

Monitoring your network is also important in making sure that nobody accesses your wireless router. Thanks to the latest encryptions, it should be impossible to break into a secure wireless network with a length security key. But hackers are persistent in finding holes and some will take advantage without you knowing it. But if you have a network monitor actively running, you can figure out immediately if someone bypasses the security. Some virus scanners and security suites may even show you a notification if there is something wrong with your network.

Monitoring your network is all about making sure that the most important applications are using the Internet right now. It is also about keeping your network secure at all costs just in case. When security measures fail and intrusions occur you can take action immediately using the data obtained from consistent monitoring.

Source by Elijah James

Network Consulting Service – The Support System Of Businesses

Building, extending and upgrading an existing network to make sure that is it smooth, functional, updated, protected and delivers with the highest potential and lives up to the performance record of the company is what a network consulting services helps to do.

One may wonder, what is the need for hiring someone else for providing network consultation for a company? The answer is simple. There are firms that deal exclusively to look after and support your company network to enable you to work appropriately. Network consulting service includes assessment and analysis of your network, network design and planning and implementation of projects.

Network consulting service providing professionals find the strengths and weaknesses, risks and opportunities and help maximize the value of the existing network infrastructure of the company. They analyze the network approaches and recommend better services for optimization of the network. By designing and planning the network better, they help in the understanding of the requirements for future projects and offer architectural guidance for the network use and operations. They also explain technical capabilities in an extensive way.

Network consulting service help companies manage IT related risks, improve their network operations, installation of required IT hardware and software, overall maintenance and management of network, extend growth in the market, accelerate network readiness, performance enhancement, maintain user satisfaction and manage network costs.

These service providing firms hire qualified and skilled professionals with ability in the field of LAN or WAN cabling and design, IP communication, network security, marketing and consultation team members. Usually the network consulting service firms provide part-time or full-time support to companies that need their services and they customize solutions as per the needs of the company.

Network consulting service includes solutions for all your IT needs. It includes all problems related to desktops and laptops, be it as simple as problems linked to spyware, virus infect, slow running machine, loss of data, etc or may include larger areas like installation of routers, switches, internet ports, CCTV cameras, video conferencing, Wi-fi configuration, server configuration and maintenance, seamless internet connectivity, Biometric system, etc. The firms are capable of handling problems related to all companies. Be it Microsoft, Apple, Linux or Cisco, there is a solution for errors.

Network consulting firms also helps keep the network up-to-date. Like, the latest development in the IT security sector is the Unified Threat Management (UTM) technology. While Firewall helps prevent virus at the desktop level, UTM helps prevent virus at the network level. Companies might not know about such. It is the job of the consulting professional to enlighten the owners about the development and therefore update the network system.

Source by Ariel Norton

What Is Wardriving And How Can You Prevent It

Imagine a car equipped with nothing more than a laptop computer, a portable GPS receiver, and a wireless network card slowly strolls through your neighborhood. Unknown to any onlookers, this is no ordinary vehicle; rather, it is a wardriving machine. As the car strolls past homes and businesses, a wireless network card (available at any electronics store for as low as $25) scans for any wireless access points. Anyone with a wireless network (and there are many out there) is vulnerable. The computer is looking for what is called an SSID. An SSID is your wireless network name and it is being constantly transmitted by your access point, letting computers know of its presence. The wardriver uses software such as Netstumbler (for windows) or Cismet (for linux) to scan the airwaves for SSIDs. The program can track various access points at once and monitor the signal strength. These programs can also check to see if the network is encrypted. The wardriver will generally configure his or her software to log any strong unencrypted signals. Using the GPS receiver, the coordinates of the strong signal will be recorded. After this preliminary drive, the wardriver can return to the locations that were recorded, and connect to the access point. Once connected to an unencrypted network, the wardriver can use the victim’s internet access, and can also explore computers on the network. If files are being shared within someone’s private network, all of that information is susceptible to a wardriver. Furthermore, once in the network, a wardriver can sniff network traffic and can view any information such as passwords and credit card numbers you send out to the internet – even SSL secured data. Wireless network vulnerability is a major problem, and as more and more households purchase wireless technology, the problem of insecure networks increases. Sound scary? Well this happens every day, and it doesn’t take an expert to pull off. It doesn’t take an expert to protect against either, however.

Steps you can take to protect against wardrivers:

There are a number of very simple steps you can take to protect your wireless network. For many of these, you will have to access your router configuration utility (check your manual on how to do this, you will generally need to type an IP address into your browser such as or

Don’t broadcast your SSID. If you are broadcasting your SSID, this is the first thing a program will pickup and recognize. If you configure your router to not broadcast your SSID, it will be difficult to detect (but not impossible, for some software can sniff wireless communication, so if you are using your wireless network, the SSID can be revealed). If you are not broadcasting your SSID, but it can be guessed (such as if you are using a default SSID), cloaking is pointless. Due to this, remember to change your SSID from the factory default. This is not a 100 percent effective method to secure your network, but it is a good first line of defense.

Change the default password. When you buy a router, a factory password is stored. People experienced in working with routers know the default passwords for different routers (and the make of the router can be seen by wardriver software such as netstumbler). It is important that you secure your router with a good password.

Encrypt your wireless communication. I can’t stress the importance of encrypting your wireless communication enough. Enable encryption and enter a key. Most routers are only capable of WEP encryption, but if they permit, use EAP encryption, it’s more secure than WEP. Like cloaking your SSID, encryption is not 100 percent secure. Given enough time and determination, if someone wants to target you and access your network, WEP encryption can be bypassed using software such as AirSnort.

Filter the MAC addresses that are allowed to connect to your router. This would require that you enter your router configuration and input the MAC address of each wireless card you have. This will restrict access so that only your computers can connect to the router. You will need to obtain the MAC address (which is the individual identification address of a network card in the form a 12 digit hexadecimal number). If someone sniffs traffic and detects the MAC address of a computer wirelessly using your network, the wardriver could emulate that address and connect to the router, but this takes time.

If you configure file sharing on your computers, make sure it is password protected. You should not share files on your networked computers unless it requires an authenticated user to access. Set up the same user accounts on your machines so that your computers can share files.

With these relatively simple steps, wireless network users can secure their networks from wardrivers. Wireless networks are inherently insecure, and these tips will merely help you greater secure your network. If someone is really determined to gain access to your network, given enough time, a good hacker can get access. These tips will deter the average wardriver from gaining access to your network, however. Although these methods are not definite security measures, they will change your network from being something that can be hacked in a matter of seconds, to something that will take a determined hacker days if not weeks of work, all of which will have to be done while in close proximity to your network.

Source by

Best Internet Security 2018 Solution – What Kind of Protection Features Does the Program Offer?

Having an internet security solution to protect your home and/or business is essential. There are so many potential threats these days that you’ll need the best internet security 2018 to keep everything as safe and secure as possible. Cyber attacks are becoming more and more sophisticated. It’s not just the ole’ virus and malware problems we have to worry about. Cyber criminals are using methods to hack into webcams, steal personal information from smartphones, attack Wi-Fi networks, and even steal identities.

Since internet security solutions come with more features than the traditional antivirus software, the price is higher. However, as long as you choose the best suite, you’ll have all of the peace of mind you’ll ever need. If you’re trying to protect your business, think of how much money you could lose if there is ever a cyber threat that compromises your clients’ personal information. Your entire business could end up being destroyed with a security breach.

Even if you just want to protect your home PCs and smartphones from threats, it’s a good idea to invest in the best internet security. 2018 has been a busy year for cyber criminals. It seems like every day there is another story in the news about a corporation or organization getting hacked. On top of that, there are always horror stories about individuals getting into a ransomware situation.

The IT security companies are constantly putting out new software and updates to keep up with all of the newest threats. Even webcams are vulnerable to hackers. Someone could be spying on you through your webcam without you being aware. Regular antivirus programs don’t offer webcam protection. It’s crucial that you opt for a security suite that includes protection against illegal use of cams.

Top Features in the Best Internet Security of 2018

Here are some other features found in the best internet security in 2018:

• Anti-spam module

• Anti-ransomware module

• PC vulnerability detection

• Firewall

• Anti-phishing

• Remote wipe or lock function if the device is stolen or lost

• Parental controls

• Optimization module for the PC or Mac’s speed

• Router and Wi-Fi protection

• Password protection and management

• Online banking and shopping security

• File shredder

• Rescue Mode


There are also cyber security solutions that are ideal for small to medium sized businesses and provide end point and data center security.

Bitdefender coupons are available for you to use when you are purchasing one of its amazing, award-winning antivirus and cyber protection products. It’s often listed #1 in best internet security 2018 reviews, so you’ll want to consider buying it.

Source by George Botwin

How to Choose Anti-Virus Software

When considering today’s scenario of the cyber world it is very important to have an effective cyber security solution. Security and right internet security software is now become a key component for any business, as it helps to protect your PCs, server, and applications from dangerous cyber attacks including viruses, malware, hackers, spyware and more.

However, it is quite difficult to choose right cyber security solution for the business as there are number of options available in the market.

Before purchasing any cyber security solution it is very important to determine what you need from your security software as not all security packages do exactly same jobs. Now let’s determine what we need from a security tool:

What needs to protect?

It is very crucial to determine how many servers, computer and mobile devices you need to install security software

If you already have a security software:

You can save your money by upgrading your existing software

How much technical knowledge do you possess?

It is important to know the technical expertise of your IT team as some software is very easy to handle where some are very complex. You can give staff members more control only if they understand the risks.

What is the future plan of your business?

If you intended to expand your business, then make sure security software allows you to add more devices to the network.

What kind of internet security do you want?

Generally, there are two types of security software Standalone and Centralized, although many antivirus share same features but it is very crucial to understand the difference between them.

Standalone security software:

It is quite easy to install standalone software as it needs to be installed and managed in different systems separately. However, it is also very easy for staff to disable it that leaves business data vulnerable and unsecured.

Centralized software:

With this kind of tool, you can manage a number of connected device with a control panel. This kind of security tool gives you the confidence that everything is protected in your network.

What do you need to check before purchasing security software?

Security has become an important part of business security, so once you shortlist the security packages, you can further consider the below points:

  • Does your system run it? antivirus software needs a lot from your system as constantly scanning the different file in the background. Therefore it is very important that your system fulfills the software’s demand.
  • You should check whether it is clashing with other existing software or not. Because security software accesses all your data on the system, it can occasionally clash with other software also.
  • It should cost under the budget.

These are some important aspects that will help you to find right security tool for your business.

Source by Mark McCall

Server Security is of Utmost Importance

With the recent onset of technological advancement server security has become vulnerable to numerous threats throughout the web environment. Today, hackers are constantly looking out for any glitch in the web security to enter malicious software to your network that gets installed instantly and automatically. To address such issues every web hosting company needs to opt for the best server security systems and rely on top quality firewall to prevent atrocious software from inflicting their files and network applications.

Your network servers are most important for the existence of your business, so you must be extra careful to maintain the security of your web servers. If once your server gets compromised then your entire network is bound to get compromised too and then it would be very difficult for you to retrieve all your important documents and files. Whether you are a small business or big; and whether you have one server or many, it is essential for everyone to protect their servers because no matter what your entire network relies on your server security. Servers are essential because they store confidential information, valuable resources, your emails and also resources of your entire team. Your clients too rely on your server as it is an important mean of communication and if your server gets down or suffers from security threats then your entire business may come to a standstill. So, basically you tend to lose business, clients, productivity and your most important documents and files.

To ensure the security of your server, always protect your desktops and laptops. You must always backup your important data and protect your network from infiltration by subscribing to network security. Location of your server also matters a lot, so keep your server safely in a room that is far away from the public view. Changing passwords regularly can also be a good step towards ensuring server security. In any dedicated server a good firewall can act as a powerful weapon to detect hacking attempts and notify you of any impending threat. However, all these steps are only precautionary measures as no firewall or anti-virus is 100% effective unless you take care of your systems security by not engaging in mischievous applications and visiting virus infected websites.

Server security can also be maintained by providing least privileges to ensure that no one accesses your website for mischievous purposes. Privileges given on live production server or on the file and network services can induce any malicious user to access sensitive areas of your website such as your web application files and back end data. It is therefore important for your Webmaster to give least privileges to ensure maximum security of your server. User accounts too can be hacked to access your server so you must be sure that default user accounts are deactivated when they are not being used by anyone. Lastly, expert teams performing server security checks can be employed to maintain the security of your network. Today, there are numerous security seals available online that can be used to perform standard and advanced audit of your system to keep your system clean and free from hacking threats.

Source by Sunil Punjabi